Department or Program



The Arctic is warming faster than any other region on earth, as indicated by the most positive temperature anomalies in the last century, for both land masses and the ocean (Serreze and Barry, 2011), hence the concept of Arctic Amplification (Serreze and Francis, 2006a). Recent warming in the Arctic is strongly associated with feedback loops (Serreze and Francis, 2006b), where increases in greenhouse gas have caused losses of land and sea ice, which, in turn, decreases albedo and increases solar insolation absorbed, which continues the warming. Svalbard air temperature anomalies have been continuously positive since 2011, especially so in the winter months, which have been warmer and wetter (Nowak and Hodson, 2013) with decreased sea ice (Isaksen et al., 2016). Changes in arctic climate reflect a changing global climate, thus research of past and present Arctic climates is imperative in understanding present and future global climates. Svalbard is an ideal location for arctic climate studies due to its location at the boundary of polar waters and warm North Atlantic waters, a century of meteorological records unique to the Arctic (Humlum et al., 2003), and existing infrastructure and accessibility. Combined with historical meteorological data, varved proglacial sediment is an ideal high-resolution proxy to quantify and understand changing Arctic hydrology. This proxy, alongside historical research and meteorological data, provides regionally amplified evidence of a globally changing climate.

Level of Access

Open Access

First Advisor

Retelle, Michael

Date of Graduation


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Number of Pages


Components of Thesis

1 pdf file

Open Access

Available to all.