Department or Program

Environmental Studies


Rachis of the order Cycadales, also known as cycads, have been shown to display a distinct vascular arrangement that resembles the inverted Greek letter omega. This detailed and unique arrangement provides useful information to paleobotanists interested in plant identification and classification. Little is known on how the omega-shaped vascular network supplies water uniformly to leaflets. Building upon previous studies on Cycas revoluta (Tomlinson et al. 2018), this research aims to complete a thorough analysis of the three-dimensional vascular arrangements across the order Cycadales. One species from ten genera was sequentially sectioned, photographed with a digital camera under a microscope, stacked and aligned in Adobe Photoshop, and converted to cinematic format. These images yield a three-dimensional analysis of the vascular network. The hydraulic architecture can be used to explore evolutionary trends and possible links between hydraulic limitations and the geographic distribution of particular genera.

Level of Access

Restricted: Embargoed [Bates Community After Expiration]

First Advisor

Brett Huggett

Date of Graduation


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Number of Pages



Available to Bates Community via local IP address or Bates login on Tuesday, April 02, 2024.